A graphic featuring the word ‘LOGIC’

Source: LOGIC , LOGIC, Wikimedia

A logical appeal, or logos, is based on facts, data, and case studies. These arguments appeal to the reader’s head. Logical appeals use information that can be quantified (counted) to persuade the reader.

A photograph of a pipe pouring dirty water into a river

Source: Putki 2, MkeAncient, Flickr



Let’s return to the class fund-raiser idea. The main reasons for the fund-raiser are to have a fun class project, to support a worthy cause, and to provide as much money as possible for Environment Texas. This charity, Environment Texas, strives to protect the environment in our state. However, charity car washes contaminate the environment. A logical appeal is a great way to make this argument. Take a look at the sample paragraph below.

Although our class usually holds a car wash to raise funds for our charity, research shows that car washes pollute. According to the National Resources Defense Council, between 2,000 and 7,000 gallons of greasy, chemical-laden water enter storm drains during a charity car wash, polluting our waterways. Our chosen charity, Environment Texas, is devoted to protecting Texas from this type of water pollution. We must choose a fund-raiser that is more environmentally responsible.

The paragraph contains facts and logic to persuade the reader that polluting the environment to raise money for a group dedicated to protecting the environment is a very bad idea. Without the statistic, the argument would have been less persuasive.

For each argument below, select the logical appeal.

  1. Teens are greatly influenced to smoke if their peers smoke.

  2. Peer pressure is a strong motivator.
    Try again.

    Teens are 13 times more likely to smoke if their peers do.
    Correct!

    Adults underestimate the effects of peer pressure.
    Try again.

  1. Using refillable water bottles can help reduce the amount of trash in our landfills.

  2. Everyone knows that drinking water is healthy.
    Try again.

    Water bottles can be recycled, but many don't get recycled.
    Try again.
    Americans use 2.5 million plastic bottles per hour.
    Correct!

  1. The National Park System is an important factor in preserving endangered species.

  2. Over 60% of the endangered species that live in the U.S. live in national parks.
    Correct!

    National parks preserve natural habitats.
    Try again.

    National parks provide a great opportunity for people to learn more about wild animals.
    Try again.

take notes icon Now it’s your turn to find facts and begin a step in the revision process of an argument. Make the argument appeal to your reader’s sense of reason and logic by using facts from “11 Facts About How Factory Farms Affect the Environment” at DoSomething.org. Copy and paste the paragraph below into your notes to begin. When you are finished, check your understanding to see a possible response.


A photograph of an industrial chicken coup; there are thousands of chickens in a warehouse with very little room to move around.

Source: Chickens raised for slaughter, Farm Sanctuary, Flickr




Factory farms have large numbers of animals living on small plots of land. The animals are used for the large-scale production of meat for sale to grocery stores and fast food chains. Having so many animals in such a small space harms the environment. Factory farms should be regulated more closely to lessen their impact on the environment.



Check Your Understanding

Sample Response:

Factory farms have large numbers of animals living on small plots of land. The animals are used for the large-scale production of meat for sale to grocery stores and fast food chains. Having so many animals in such a small space harms the environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that factory-farmed animals make three times more waste than humans do. Also, according to DoSomething.org, the manure from factory-farmed animals can contaminate the waterways. Factory farms should be regulated more closely to keep our planet healthy.